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HTML Introduction

What is HTML?

HTML is the standard markup language for creating Web pages.

  • HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language
  • HTML describes the structure of Web pages using markup
  • HTML elements are the building blocks of HTML pages
  • HTML elements are represented by tags
  • HTML tags label pieces of content such as “heading”, “paragraph”, “table”, and so on
  • Browsers do not display the HTML tags, but use them to render the content of the page

    A Simple HTML Document

    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html>
    <head>
    <title>Page Title</title>
    </head>
    <body>

    <h1>My First Heading</h1>
    <p>My first paragraph.</p>

    </body>
    </html>

    xample Explained

    • The <!DOCTYPE html> declaration defines this document to be HTML5
    • The <html> element is the root element of an HTML page
    • The <head> element contains meta information about the document
    • The <title> element specifies a title for the document
    • The <body> element contains the visible page content
    • The <h1> element defines a large heading
    • The <p> element defines a paragraph

    Web Browsers

    The purpose of a web browser (Chrome, IE, Firefox, Safari) is to read HTML documents and display them.

    The browser does not display the HTML tags, but uses them to determine how to display the document:

    View in Browser


    HTML Page Structure

    Below is a visualization of an HTML page structure:

    <html>

    <head>

    <title>Page title</title>

    </head>

    <body>

    <h1>This is a heading</h1>
    <p>This is a paragraph.</p>
    <p>This is another paragraph.</p>

    </body>

    </html>

    The <!DOCTYPE> Declaration

    The <!DOCTYPE> declaration represents the document type, and helps browsers to display web pages correctly.

    It must only appear once, at the top of the page (before any HTML tags).

    The <!DOCTYPE> declaration is not case sensitive.

    The <!DOCTYPE> declaration for HTML is:

    <!DOCTYPE html>

    HTML Versions

    Since the early days of the web, there have been many versions of HTML:

    Version Year
    HTML 1991
    HTML 2.0 1995
    HTML 3.2 1997
    HTML 4.01 1999
    XHTML 2000
    HTML5 2014